Objective: This is a systematic review performed to investigate current and potential biomarkers in functional movement disorders (FMD).
Background: FMD are proposed to reflect a specific problem with voluntary control of movement, despite normal intent to move and an intact neural capacity for movement. In many cases, a positive diagnosis of FMD can be established on clinical grounds. However, the diagnosis remains challenging in certain scenarios, and there is a need for predictors of treatment response and long-term prognosis.
Method: In this context, we performed a systematic review of biomarkers in FMD. Seventy-four studies met our pre-defined criteria and were included.
Results: We found fairly reliable EEG and EMG-based diagnostic biomarkers for functional myoclonus and tremor. Promising biomarkers have also been described for functional paresis, gait and balance disorders. In contrast, there is still a lack of diagnostic biomarkers of functional dystonia and tics, where clinical diagnosis is often also more challenging. Importantly, many promising findings focus on pathophysiology and reflect group-level comparisons, but cannot differentiate on an individual basis. Some biomarkers also require access to time- and resource consuming techniques such as fMRI.
Conclusion: In conclusion, there are important gaps in diagnostic biomarkers in FMD in the areas of most clinical uncertainty. There is also is a lack of treatment response and prognostic biomarkers to aid in the selection of patients who would benefit from rehabilitation and other forms of treatment.
To cite this abstract in AMA style:B. Thomsen, T. Teodoro, M. Edwards. Biomarkers in Functional Movement Disorders: A Systematic Review [abstract]. Mov Disord. 2020; 35 (suppl 1). https://www.mdsabstracts.org/abstract/biomarkers-in-functional-movement-disorders-a-systematic-review/. Accessed December 2, 2023.
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MDS Abstracts - https://www.mdsabstracts.org/abstract/biomarkers-in-functional-movement-disorders-a-systematic-review/