Category: Rating Scales
Objective: The goal of this study is to validate the Shame in PARKinson’s disease (SPARK) Scale  which identifies the presence, the extent and some factors related with shame and embarassement in Parkinson’s disease (PD).
Background: Shame and embarrassment represent a major cause of quality of life (QoL) impairment in PD. The SPARK has recently been developed to detect shame in people with PD. Its validation will give a reliable tool for physicians and researchers to measure the severity of shame as well as to better understand the factors involved in shame related to PD.
Method: This international, multi-center, cross-sectional study recruited PD patients from movement disorders clinics. Together with socio-demographic characteristics and PD treatment data, the SPARK scale, composed of 33 items grouped in 5 subscales (PD symptoms (motor and non-motor), increased physical dependence, deterioration of body image, impact on self-esteem, level of stigma), was administered. Other assessments included: Hoehn & Yahr (HY) stage, QUICK/WOQ-19 scale, MDS-UPDRS, PDQ-8, Stigma Scale for Chronic Illness (SSCI-8) and Neuropsychiatric Fluctuations Scale (NFS). Main psychometric properties were calculated: data quality and acceptability (skewness, floor and ceiling effects), reliability (internal consistency and test-retest in 40 patients) and construct and internal validity.
Results: 127 patients (61% men, mean age: 63.2; mean PD duration: 9.1; median HY stage: 2) were included of which 79 had motor fluctuations (PwF, score>1 in QUICK/WOQ-19 scale) and 48 did not fluctuate (PnF). The mean SPARK total scores were: 29.9 (standard deviation, SD: 19.5) for PwF in Off; 22.7 (SD: 18.8) for PwF in On; and 11.6 (SD: 11.3) for PnF (p<0.001). Skewness was satisfactory for most SPARK subscales and total score, and floor and ceiling effects were absent in the total score. Regarding internal consistency, Cronbach’s alpha was >0.80 in all subscales. For test-retest reliability, the intra-class correlation coefficient was >0.70 for all subscales and reached 0.89 for total score. The SPARK total correlated 0.11 to 0.45 with MDS-UPDRS; 0.61 with PDQ-8; 0.60 with SSCI-8; and 0.61 with NFS-On subscale. SPARK subscales correlated 0.46 to 0.83 between them.
Conclusion: The preliminary results suggest the SPARK is a useful, reliable and valid tool for the assessment of embarrassment and shame in patients with PD.
References: 1. Fleury V, Catalano Chiuvé S, Forjaz MJ, Di Marco M, Messe M, Debove I, Angulo J, Hariz GM, Burkhard PR, Martinez-Martin P, Rodriguez-Blazquez C, Krack P. Embarrassment and Shame in People With Parkinson’s Disease: A New Tool for Self-Assessment. Front Neurol. 2020 Jul 31;11:779. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2020.00779.
To cite this abstract in AMA style:I. Debove, C. Rodriguez-Blazquez, S. Murcia, A. Zenger, MM. Kurtis, E. Cubo, C. Falup-Pecurariu, KR. Chaudhuri, H. Reichman, S. Bostantjopoulou, M. Bereau, V. Fleury, P. Krack. Preliminary results of the validation study of the Shame in Parkinson’s disease (SPARK) Scale [abstract]. Mov Disord. 2023; 38 (suppl 1). https://www.mdsabstracts.org/abstract/preliminary-results-of-the-validation-study-of-the-shame-in-parkinsons-disease-spark-scale/. Accessed September 25, 2023.
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MDS Abstracts - https://www.mdsabstracts.org/abstract/preliminary-results-of-the-validation-study-of-the-shame-in-parkinsons-disease-spark-scale/